Alphabetic Fern Catalog

Catalog

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References

This Fern Catalog is a compilation of the information used on the information cards the San Diego Fern Society puts out to instruct the public about the various plants on display at the annual Fern Show. Each card attempts to list for each fern:

* the proper name (and, sometimes, synonyms),
* any common names (if known),
* a general idea of the areas in which it is found in nature,
* some general comments, including in many cases whether or not it grows well in San Diego,
* general climatic tolerance, and
* normal growing habitat (terrestrial, epiphytic, aquatic, xeric, etc.)

All of this must fit on a 3 1/2 x 5 1/2 inch card in large type, so it is necessarily brief. Added at the end of this information in this catalog (but not on the cards) are the Division and Class designation used for plants at the Fern Show. Because of the way we categorize plants for competition, these items tell a great deal about the growing habits and appearance of the plant. (See SDFS Division & Class Codes below.)

Should you acquire or own a fern for which you have an accurate name, the information included here should enable you to determine its growth habits and needs for planting, placement, watering, feeding, etc.

This list was constructed several years ago by first choosing all of the familiar listings in Barbara Joe Hoshizaki's Fern Growers Manual. Each year since then we have added descriptions for every new plant that has been entered in the Fern Show. We have used a wide variety of references to make these descriptions as accurate as possible, but you would be foolish indeed to believe they are perfect. Please let us know what you find to be wrong.

SDFS Division & Class Codes

For Classes in Division 1 through 18 the designations are all the same. They are as follows:

* Class A: Entire, lobed, other not class B, C, or D
* Class B: pinnate, pinnatifid
* Class C: Bi-pinnate/pinnatifid
* Class D: Multi-pinnate/pinnatifid

Division numbers specify the fern's size and manner of growth. Divisions 1 through 6 have mature fronds with lengths less than one foot, divisions 7 through 12 are mature fronds from 1 to 3 feet, and divisions 13 to 18 are mature fronds over three feet.

Within each group of divisions the descriptions are adapted from the code system used in the "Fern Growers Manual" but altered slightly for the current purpose. There are six Division definitions, each of which repeats three times, as follows:

Mature fronds
less than one foot Mature fronds
1 to 3 feet Mature fronds
over three feet
Wide creeping, fronds 2 inches or more apart DIVISION 1 DIVISION 7 DIVISION 13
Short creeping, fronds less than 2 inches apart DIVISION 2 DIVISION 8 DIVISION 14
Clump forming, rhizome branching DIVISION 3 DIVISION 9 DIVISION 15
Fronds in a close spiral, short erect, semi-erect or ascending stem DIVISION 4 DIVISION 10 DIVISION 16
Plant spreading by root buds, leaf buds, or stolons DIVISION 5 DIVISION 11 DIVISION 17
Tree fern or tree fern-like DIVISION 6 DIVISION 12 DIVISION 18


Divisions 19 through 21 are for Platyceriums only and are defined, for convenience, as follows:

* Division 19: Platycerium--Normal Care
o Class A: bifurcatum & cultivars
o Class B: willinckii, veitchii and their cultivars
* DIVISION 20: Platycerium-Normal Care
o Class A: Hillii and its cultivars
* DIVISION 21: Platycerium - Special Growing Care
o Class A: superbum
o Class B: grande, andinum, and holttumii
o Class C: coronarium, stemaria, elephantotis, alcicorne, wallichii, and ellisii
o Class D: ridleyi, madagascarense, and quadridichotimum

DIVISION 23 is for Fern Allies. The classes in that division are as follows

* Class A: Selaginella
* Class B: Lycopodium
* Class C: Others - Isoetes, Equisetum, and Psilotum

A

Acrostichum aureum
Swamp Fern. Worldwide tropics. A coarse fern with leathery, dark green fronds which forms large clumps in wet soils. Native to mangrove swamps and salt-water marshes in the Florida Keys. Often grows in brackish water. Large plants resent disturbance, small plants readily adapt. Require bright light and plenty of moisture. [Pantropical. Terrestrial] 16B


Acrostichum danaeifolium
Giant Leather Fern. Florida, Central and South America. This huge fern has fronds to over 12 ft. long. It lives in the swamps, either fresh or brackish, likes some sunshine and is quite sensitive to cold. The large, once pinnate fronds form a solid thicket. [Tropical to Semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 16B

Adiantopsis radiata
(No common name) Central America, S. America north of Brazil. Grows on damp shaded rocky slopes. Similar in appearance to Adiantum pedatum and A. hispidulum but the stipe is slightly flattened and has tiny longitudinal wings. Also, sori have true indusium. Grows erect to about 1 1/2 feet. Will need protection against low humidity to grow here. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 9B

Adiantum aethiopicum
Common Maidenhair. Australia, New Zealand, Africa. Once thought to grow in Ethiopia, hence its name. It doesn't and is found in Africa only at the Southern tip. It is an average-sized Maidenhair with small fan-shaped pinnules. It likes light shade and wet soil where it will spread rapidly by wandering rhizomes. Its tolerance for sun and cold seems to depend on the origin of the plant or spores. Those from colder areas are quite hardy but those from tropical areas are not. Those sold in this area should grow easily if kept damp. [Temperate to Tropical; Terrestrial] 8C

Adiantum aleuticum
Western Maidenhair. Western Canada, Western U.S., Mexico. Very similar to A. pedatum, this fern is noted for its unusual stipe which branches with each branch turning out at right angles to the other, like a bird's foot. A hardy fern that thrives in cold districts, more difficult in hot climates. May be deciduous. Likes shady conditions and plenty of moisture. Grows best in the ground with a good covering of humus or mulch. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8C

Adiantum capillus-veneris
Venus Maidenhair Fern or Southern Maidenhair. Pantropical. A small delicate drooping fern with light green fronds. Most common in tropical zones. Often grows in limestone, in fairly sunny locations. Plants can be easily grown in pots fortified with lime or among rocks on the ground or on walls in a humid environment. Will not tolerate hot or drying winds. 'Banksianum', 'Fimbriatum' & 'Imbricatum' are popular cultivars. All grow well in Southern California. [Tropical to Temperate; Terrestrial] 8D

Adiantum caudatum
Walking Maidenhair. Africa, India, Asia, Indonesia. A fine maidenhair for basket or hanging pot. A small, tufted fern with long hairy fronds which root at the tips. Pendulous fronds with lobed segments. Can be grown between rocks in low to medium light and high humidity. Here it needs protection of a greenhouse or patio. Neutral to alkaline mix. Propagated by plantlets produced on the frond tips. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 11B

Adiantum formosum
Black-stem Maidenhair. Australia and New Zealand. This is a truly beautiful maidenhair that grows to four feet tall in its native habitat. The fern forms extensive colonies by virtue of long-creeping underground rhizomes. The plant grows widely-spaced fronds in the ground but is more compact in a container. The Black-stem Maidenhair also grows well in a basket. These plants like an acid soil, particularly organically rich loam in a shady situation. Dislikes being disturbed. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8D

Adiantum hispidulum
Rosy Maidenhair. Five Finger Fern. Rough Maidenhair. Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, S. India, Africa. This is a small fern with thin upright stems that are branched into three to seven fingers. During the growing season this fern will continue to rise, forming a dense stand of closely spaced scaly stems. New fronds are bright rosy pink. In its natural habitat this fern occurs in open forest on shaded earth banks or among rocks or other shrubs. Will grow well in all soils with good drainage provided. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8D

Adiantum pedatum
Five-fingered Maidenhair. American Maidenhair. Northern Maidenhair. Eastern US, Canada. Very similar to A. aleuticum this fern is noted for its unusual stipe which branches with each branch turning out at right angles to the other, like a bird's foot. A hardy fern that thrives in cold districts, more difficult in hot climates. May be deciduous. Likes shady conditions and plenty of moisture. Grows best in the ground with a good covering of humus or mulch. [Terrestrial] 8C

Adiantum peruvianum
Silver Dollar Maidenhair. South America. The new fronds are silvery pink with an almost metallic sheen. The pinnules (leaves) are roundish, reminiscent of a silver dollar. In the wild, the fronds get to be up to a yard long. Likes humidity and air movement, bright light. Here it is grown mostly in greenhouses. Allow soil to become slightly dry before watering. During the dormant winter period watering should be kept to a minimum. This fern is almost a weed in tropical situations, colonizing rocks and the mortar of buildings. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8C

Adiantum pubescens
(no common name) Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Fiji, New Caledonia. Very similar to A. hispidulum except the hairs of the latter are softer. Always has pedate (divided, with the divisions again divided) fronds. Forms an attractive clump of fronds. New growth is from brown to bright red. Very hardy. Likes an acid, organically rich well-drained soil. Likes a high humidity brightly-lit location, but no direct sun. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8D

Adiantum raddianum
Delta Maidenhair. Central and South America, Mexico, West Indies. This is the maidenhair fern from which most cultivated varieties arise, with no less than 70 variants known and named. It has great variability. In nature it grows in rocky outcrops, cliff faces, and moist stream banks. A majority of the forms like neutral to alkaline soil; need good drainage and fairly bright light. The species plant is seldom seen. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8D

Adiantum reniforme
(no common name) Africa, Canary Islands. This small fern has simple fronds, each with a single, thick, leathery lamina (blade) which resembles a Ginko leaf. The stipe, or stalk, is hairy. It is reputed to be hard to grow. It needs a very open, well-drained, mostly organic soil mix with an addition of lime. Small pieces of crushed limestone or shell-grit are beneficial. Terra cotta pots are also an aid to giving this fern good drainage and aeration of the root system. Prefers daytime temperatures of 60-80 degrees and cool nights. Will tolerate near zero temperatures. 3A

Adiantum tenerum
(No common name). Central and South America, Florida. This fern is found throughout tropical America but is seldom grown locally in the species form. It likes plenty of light and an alkaline soil. In the tropics it is frequently found in the mortar of old walls. A beautiful natural variety, 'Farleyense', grows well here. The cultivars 'Sleeping Ferguson' & 'Sleeping Beauty' are also grown but 'Sleeping Ferguson' needs a terrarium or greenhouse to do well. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 2C

Adiantum trapeziforme
Giant Maidenhair Fern. Central and South America. This fern grows in tropical rain forests, mostly at low and medium altitudes, where it occurs on hillsides, stream banks, and sinkholes. The fronds on mature plants can grow to over seven feet in length with individual pinnules (leaves) over two inches long. The name is derived from the trapezoidal shape of the leaves. Requires protection if temperatures fall below 60 degrees. If possible, should be grown in the ground. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 14D

Adiantum venustum
Evergreen Maidenhair. India, Canada. A most attractive fern from the mountain slopes of the Himalayas. Can also be found in Canada. It has large, erect, broadly triangular fronds with wedge-shaped toothed pinnules (leaves). The undersides of the pinnules are powdery on mature growth. Can be propagated from spore or by division from a parent plant. Young, actively growing rhizomes from spore grow better than divisions from an older plant. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 7D

Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Bear's Paw Fern. Philippines. This is an epiphytic fern that grows as tall as 36 inches in its native habitat. It has an unusually large creeping rhizome covered with rust-colored scales. The thick scales hide the joint of the leaves with the rhizome. This species has glossy, dark green dimorphic leaves. The upper part of the fronds have ribbon-like fertile pinnae, about twice as long as the sterile segments. A rich, damp humus is preferred as a growing medium, with good ventilation and drainage. Likes a humid atmosphere. [Temperate to Tropical; Epiphytic] 8B

Aglaonaria robertsii 'Santa Rosa'
(no common name) This is an epiphytic fern with fronds up to four feet long. This is theorized to be a hybrid Aglaomorpha meyeniana and a Drynaria. The rhizome is covered with brown hair or scales. Can be grown in protected patio with medium to high humidity. Soil needs to be moist, but kept on the dry side. High light. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 14B

Arachnoides aristata
Prickly Shield Fern. South East Asia, Polynesia, Australia. An attractive hardy fern which has triangular, glossy dark green, almost prickly fronds which grow to nearly three feet long and a creeping rhizome. It can be grown easily in a shady situation and will adapt to most well-drained soils. Once established, plants will tolerate periods of dryness. [Temperate to Tropical; Terrestrial] 8D

Arachniodes simplicior
Variegated Shield Fern. Japan and China. Sometimes sold incorrectly as Arachniodes aristata 'Variegata'. This is an attractive but slow-growing fern, popular with fern fanciers. It is notable for its glossy-green fronds that have a prominent yellowish band on each side of the midrib. Plants can be grown either in loamy soil or in a container. Grows well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8C

Arthropteris orientalis
(No common name). Africa, Asia. This is a monster fern with erect pinnatifid fronds to 6 or 7 feet long. Often found in granite outcrops. Dies down during the dry winters but should grow well here. (Semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8B

Aspidotis californica
California Lace Fern. (Recently changed from Cheilanthes californica) From California and Mexico. This small rock fern has shiny dark stipes and fronds that have a broad outline. The fronds are deeply divided and lobed. It is evergreen, preferring dry situations. Plants are susceptible to over watering. It is happy in warm temperate climates and likes high light. Difficult to grow. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Xeric terrestrial] 3D

Aspidotis densa.
(no common name). British Columbia south to California and east to Montana. This is one of the so-called Cheilanthoids, the group of xerophytic ferns. It grows in the open on slopes and rocky outcrops, often on selenium (serpentine) substrates. [Temperate xeric; Terrestrial] 3D

Asplenium aethiopicum
Shredded Spleenwort. Africa, Australia, South India, Sri Lanka. It is a highly variable fern but its many forms have defied all efforts to define it more accurately. It is bi-pinnate and the secondary pinnules are tough and leathery, looking as though they had been cut off at the end with pinking shears. It is mostly epiphytic but also grows on various types of rock. It will grow well here in a small pot with loose mix or in a small basket. [Temperate to Tropical; Epiphytic or Epipetric] 10C

Asplenium antiguum
(no common name) Japan. A semi-hardy bird's nest fern that grows best in a protected patio. An epiphyte, it grows on trees and rocks in the wild, collecting debris in its leaves to use as food. Tightly arranged polished green fronds will sometimes fork at the ends. The fronds grow two to three feet long, and the crown turns whitish brown when mature. Likes humidity so keep soil constantly moist and use rich humus. No direct sun. 'Victoria is a popular cultivar. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10A

Asplenium australisicum
Bird's-Nest Fern. Australia, New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tahiti. The fern grows in the top hamper of tropical jungles and the fronds can get to be almost seven feet long. The midrib of each frond is gently rounded on top and sharply keeled on the bottom. See A. nidus. This is a very robust and strong-growing Bird's-nest type that adapts extremely well to cultivation. Can be grown in the garden on rocks or as a tub plant in a coarse mixture. Makes a good house plant. There are several cultivars, i.e. 'Cristata' & 'Fimbriata'. All of these are almost always sold locally as A. nidus, a similar but different species. [Tropical to Temperate; Epiphytic or Terrestrial] 16A

Asplenium billotii
(no common name) Europe. This small species with bright green fronds gets to be 12 inches at the most. Can be grown in a small pot of fibrous acid mix, or in a shady position outside. It will tolerate very cold climates (remaining green) but need continual protection against slugs and snails. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 4D

Asplenium bulbiferum
Mother Fern. Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia. A delicate green fern with fronds like carrot tops. Small plantlets appear on the top surface of the fronds that can easily grow new ferns. Likes low to medium light but will tolerate a little direct sun. Keep soil evenly moist with an occasional drying. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial or Epiphytic] 11D

Asplenium ceterach
Rusty-Back Fern. India, Africa, Europe. This fern has also been known as Ceterach officinarum. This is a dwarf limestone loving fern eminently suitable for the rock garden. It has small, evergreen, deeply-lobed fronds, 3-6 inches long. The reverse side of the fronds is covered with silvery scales that become rusty brown. For every plant found on natural rock, a hundred will be found on old mortared walls. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 4B

Asplenium cuspidatum
(No common name). Mexico, Guatemala to Panama. This medium sized fern with highly divided fronds is part of what is known as the A. auritum complex, a complicated and confusing group of perhaps a dozen very similar ferns. It usually lives in the trees of Central America and should probably do well here. [Tropical to Semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 2D

Asplenium dalhousie
Countess Dalhousie's Spleenwort. North India, Mexico, Arizona. This fern is probably more frequently known as Ceterach dalhousie although it is also called Asplenium alternans or even Ceterachopsis dalhousie by botanists. This is a neat little fern that grows to be 2-6 inches tall. It forms a small rosette of dark green fronds. Can be grown here with care. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 4B

Asplenium daucifolium
Mauritius Spleenwort. Mauritius and Madagascar. This is a handsome spleenwort with long, arching finely dissected fronds that are liberally sprinkled with plantlets in the manner of A. bulbiferum. It makes an excellent basket plant, but can be equally well grown in a dry, shady position in the ground where it will grow about 2 ft. Tall. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 11D

Asplenium flaccidum
Weeping Spleenwort. Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands. This delightful fern is renowned for its strongly weeping and delicately lobed fronds. Epiphytic by nature it makes an excellent basket fern in a coarse, fibrous mixture. This plant can grow to be as large as 40 inches. Likes humid conditions with some air movement. Extremely variable in growth habit, with some forms having a few long slender fronds with the rest shorter and compact. It also grows as an upright terrestrial. [Temperate to semi-tropical, Epiphytic, Terrestrial] 10C

Asplenium goudeyi
(No common name) Australia. This is a close relative of A. australisicum, one of the common Bird's Nest ferns, and is endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia. The fronds are shorter and more erect, gray-green rather than bright green and much more leathery. It is new in this area but so far seems to enjoy it here with the same treatment as A. australasicum and A. nidus. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric.] 10A

Asplenium nidus
Birds-nest Fern. Pantropical. A large epiphyte which usually grows in the tree tops but can be easily grown in pots, tubs or among rocks in the garden. Grows to be about 5 feet tall. The midrib of each frond is raised and rounded on top, nearly smooth on the bottom. See A. australasicum. This fern is very seldom found here. Most plants sold under this name are, in fact, A. australasicum. One exception is A. nidus 'plicatum' which is usually known as the 'Lasagna Fern', a small, heavily twisted version of the Birds-nest. [Temperate to tropical; Epiphytic, Terrestrial] 16A

Asplenium oligophlebium
(No common name) Japan. This is a small graceful fern that spreads by rooting at the tips of its arching fronds. The fronds are pinnate with deeply incised pinnules and grow to about 12 inches long . In a shady spot with rich, loose soil it will make a good ground cover. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 5B

Asplenium pinnatifidum
Lobed Spleenwort. Eastern U.S. This plant looks like a long-stemmed, more upright and deeply lobed Walking Fern, with the same long tapering and pointed leaves, but greener and more crinkled. This fern is usually found in rocky, inaccessible crevices of acid soil. The leaves are about 6 inches long, broadest at the base, and tapered to a point with a thick semi-erect lower half that is distinctly and deeply lobed. Evergreen. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 5B

Asplenium polydon
Weeping Spleenwort, Mare's-tail Fern. Australia, New Zealand, Asia, Pacific Islands. This handsome, widespread fern (also known Asplenium falcatum) is epiphytic throughout the tropics and sub-tropics although there is a terrestrial form on Lord Howe Island. It is once pinnate, growing from a short creeping rhizome. The most attractive form has long hanging fronds with toothed pinnules. It may need a little protection in the cooler parts of So. California. [Tropical to semi-tropical, epiphytic] 8B

Asplenium ruta-muraria
Wall-Rue Spleenwort. Europe, Asia and northern North America this dwarf fern ( 2" - 5") is nearly always found in rock crevices and in the limestone mortar of old walls. Dislikes pot culture, but does well in shady limestone scree. Very uncommon here. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 4C

Asplenium scolopendrium
Hart's Tongue Fern. Europe, Asia, Northeastern North America. This widespread fern grows on limestone or calcareous soils and on old mortared walls. It has a nest of simple fronds as much as 2 ft. long. Known to the British as 'Scollies' they are among the most popular ferns in cultivation. Hundreds of forms are known, some natural and some arising in cultivation. Known to some as Phyllitis scolopendrium. They have proven difficult to grow in Southern California. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 10A

Asplenium simplicifrons
Narrow-leaf Bird's-nest Fern. Australia. This is a very distinctive Asplenium that grows in moist, shady situations from lowland to highland regions. The plants form an attractive upright rosette of dark green, slender fronds to 24 in. An ideal pot or basket plant excellent for indoor decoration tolerating quite dark conditions and neglect. [Tropical to semi-tropical] 10A

Asplenium surrogatum
(No common name) Australia, New Zealand. This is a medium size terrestrial plant that is very similar to the epiphyte A. flaccidum. It is the plant that used to be known locally as A. mayii and may still be found for sale under that name. It has long bi-pinnate fronds with strongly serrated pinnules. [Temperate to semi to tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Asplenium trichomanes
Maidenhair Spleenwort or Common Spleenwort. Worldwide. It is common throughout Britain and in the U.S. where it is found in the East and South to Georgia and Alabama and West to Alaska. Its native habitat is soil pockets in limestone rock, but it is tolerant of other soils, other rocks. Requires shade and moisture. Grows sometimes on undersides of rocks or in the mouth of a cave. Cultivars are 'Cristatum' and 'Incisum'. Difficult in Southern California. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 4B

Asplenosorus ebenoides
Scott's Spleenwort. Eastern U.S. This is a natural cross between Asplenium platyneuron with Camptosorus rhizophyllus. The highly variable fronds are evergreen, from 4-12 inches long. The fronds are highly variable, cut in bizarre patterns of assorted shaped and sized lobes. When the tip of the frond touches the ground it will sometimes root. Extremely difficult to winter over here is Southern California. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 5B

Astrolepis beitelii
(No common name) Central valley of Mexico. Until recently known as Cheilanthes beitelii this fern is part of the 'sinuata complex' the members of which are very difficult to distinguish. A. beitelii lacks the dense glandular hairs as well as the adaxial surface hairs of A. sinuata. Fronds grow to nearly 2 ft. long. It grows on dry rocky slopes in nearly full sun and will grow well here if given excellent drainage. [Semi-tropical, xeric; Terrestrial] 9C

Astrolepis sinuata
Wavy Cloak Fern. From North America, Mexico, Central America, and South America. This is one of many species forms that grow in hot and arid conditions in the Southwestern US. Some forms are greenish and some appear blue-tinted. This hardy fern usually grows in gravelly soils in sunny or shady conditions. Plants require excellent drainage, bright light, and good air circulation. Until recently these ferns were included in the genus Notholaena. Divided into three sub-species. [Temperate to semi-tropical, xeric; Terrestrial] 3C

Athyrium filix-femina
Lady Fern. United States, British Isles, Africa, India, China, Japan, Canada, Mexico, and Peru. There are said to be 40 native American forms and over 300 named forms altogether. This is a deciduous fern in cold areas and dormant during the winter. It grows best in the ground rather than in a container and requires a shady to semi-shady situation on loamy, humus-rich soil. All forms are difficult to grow in Southern California. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 10B

Athyrium niponicum
Japanese Painted Fern. Japan. This fern has unusual coloration with green and white pinnules (leaves) but is seldom seen in cultivation. The commonly seen variety is 'Pictum' whose veins, ribs, and stipe of deep burgundy. There are two common varieties of this plant. One is a tall growing deeply colored plant with fronds to 20 in. long. The other grows much shorter fronds but a greater number, giving a dense look to the foliage. The leaves and stems on the shorter variety tend to be much lighter colored, as well. Both are deciduous and hardy, except in extreme cold. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Athyrium othophorum
(no common name) Japan, China, Korea. Grows to 20-28 inches tall. This fern has distinctive, fairly broad, deltoid fronds which have dark green segments and a reddish to purplish stipe and rachis (stem). Plants prefer a shady location in humus-rich loam. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

B

Belvisia mucronata
Needle Fern, Tailed Fern. Polynesia, Malaysia, Australia. This is a member of a seldom grown genus that is distinguished by having a long, slender, tailed section at the end of its fronds. This tail forms the fertile section of the frond and the sporangia form a pair of long lines protected by the reflexed portion of the frond. Makes a nice basket plant in sphagnum or a coarse soil mixture. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 7A

Blechnum appendiculatum
Hammock Fern. West Indies, Mexico, and South America. Found in the local trade as Blechnum occidentale or B. glandulosum. A small form with constantly changing color of frond from pink to green during growth. Underside of stem is hairy. Makes a good ground cover under trees. Likes partial sun, food and water. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial]

Blechnum australe
(no common name) From Africa, South America, and Madagascar. This is a small (20 inches) attractive Blechnum which forms clumps of dark green fronds on the ends of slender rhizomes. In cultivation this plant likes plenty of moisture and a semi-shady situation although it will tolerate exposure to a fair amount of sun. A useful ground cover fern. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9B

Blechnum brasiliense
Brazilian Tree Fern. This is not usually considered a true tree fern as its trunk rarely exceeds three feet in height, but fronds can be 2-5 feet in length. Largest of the Blechnum genus. Has a beautiful crisped cultivar, B. brasiliense 'Crispum' , which shows the red new growth typical of the Blechnums to great advantage. Both are easily grown here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 12B

Blechnum cordatum
(No common name) Guatemala to Panama. Also commonly known as B. scheideanum. This fern is very difficult to distinguish from B. falciforme differing primarily in the layering of the scales. It is a large fern that grows to perhaps 60 in high. It is dimorphic with the fertile pinnae highly contracted. Young growth is bright red. It grows on the drier eastern slopes that make it a good candidate to grow here. Keep it fairly dry with lots of light. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 10B

Blechnum falciforme
(No common name) Guatemala to Panama. This is a large fern with fronds from 18 in. to perhaps 60 in. long. Depending on location. It is dimorphic, fronds being either sterile or fertile. The fertile pinnae are highly contracted. Young growth is bright red making it an interesting member of the garden. It grows on the drier eastern slopes of Central America, making it a good candidate to grow here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Blechnum gibbum
Dwarf Tree Fern. New Caledonia, New Hebrides, and Fiji. Grows to 28 inches like a miniature tree fern. Develops a short, stout trunk with age. This popular fern has an appealing crown of finely divided fronds. Plants are excellent for containers, but can also be grown in the ground in a shady, moist situation. Absolutely must be kept damp. [Tropical to Temperate; Terrestrial] 12B

Blechnum gracile
(No common name) Central and South America. This is a relatively small member of the B. occidentale complex with blades of the fronds up to about 10 in. In length but stipes (stems) anywhere from two to 10 inches long. . It colonizes rapidly by means of stolons. It grows along the banks of streams in the wet low altitude forests which means it likes water and light. Grows nicely here. Would make a good ground cover. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9B

Blechnum minus
Swamp kiokio. Australia, New Zealand. This fern is part of the B. capense complex and may not be a separate species. It is dimorphic with fronds forming a clump about 3 ft. high in the wild. If kept damp will stand nearly full sun and they grow well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 17B

Blechnum moorei
(no common name) New Caledonia. This fern grows to be up to 32 inches tall. It grows much like Blechnum gibbum and, indeed, may be another form of that species but has much broader segments on the sterile fronds. It develops a short trunk as the plant matures. It is cold-sensitive and likes a warm, moist situation. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 12B

Blechnum norfolkianum
(no common name) New Zealand. Found on the islands on the north shores of the North Island it is very similar to B. chambersii that is found on the mainland. This fern is larger with fronds well over three feet long, pinnatifid, with as many as 60 pinnule pairs. It likes it warm and dryish with a light rich soil. Should be very easy here. [Semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 18B???

Blechnum occidental
Hammock Fern. West Indies, Mexico, and South America. Very similar to Blechnum appendiculatum but underside of stem is smooth. A small form with constantly changing color of frond from pink to green during growth. Makes a good ground cover under trees but is seldom found in cultivation. Likes partial sun, food and water. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial]

Blechnum penna-marina
Alpine Water Fern. Australia, New Zealand, and South America. This delightful creeping fern from is ideal as ground cover in a shady, moist situation or for planting among rocks. Likes friable (open and loose) humus-rich soil. Very fast growing in a suitable situation. Plants are quite cold-hardy and in moist situations will tolerate considerable exposure to sun. Sounds wonderful, but it is extremely difficult in Southern California. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 2B

Blechnum punctulatum
(No common name) South Africa, Madagascar. This medium sized Blechnum has fronds to about 18 in. long and is easy to confuse with B. australe. It lives in moist forest margins or rocky stream beds but .also extends into sunny dry crevices. Should be easy to grow here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial.] 10B

Blechnum serrulatum
Swamp Water Fern. Australia, Malaysia, Polynesia, and South America. This species and Blechnum indicum from the Old World are possibly the same. There are 'escaped' colonies in Florida. This is a colony forming fern found in swamps and spreading by long, subterranean rhizomes. The stiffly erect fronds are an attractive pinkish at first, turning bright green and then darker green. In cultivation these ferns do not need swampy conditions, but appreciate plenty of water and acid, peaty soils. Grows well in Southern California. [Temperate to Tropical; Terrestrial] 15B

Blechnum spicant
Deer Fern, Ladder Fern, Hard Fern, Herring Bone Fern, Snake Fern. Europe, North-East Asia, and the US. A hardy little fern with a neat, compact growth habit. This fern is dimorphic, bearing sterile fronds in a relatively flat circle and a fertile frond that may shoot up to nearly three feet high. It occurs naturally on rock ledges and in forests and grows easily in cultivation in the areas where it is found. Prefers a shady situation in acid soil and looks attractive among rocks. Absolutely cannot tolerate lime. Very cold-hardy. Extremely difficult to grow in Southern California. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 10B

Blechnum watsii
Hard Water Fern. Australia. Like most Blechnums, the new growth on this plant starts out red and gradually turns dark green. This plant is called the "hard" water fern because of its leathery texture. Has large fronds and grows in the mountain forests but will grow well in the garden. Seldom seen here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 14B

Bommeria hispida
(No common name). North America. This is a small creeping fern with palm shaped fronds from 4 to 10 in. long. It likes an open sunny location with excellent drainage and plenty of air movement. Given these conditions it should do well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Xeric terrestrial] 2C

C

Campyloneurum angustifolium

Central American Strap Fern. Tropical America. This narrow strap is very simple in structure with long narrow strap-like fronds. It is highly variant in detail with blades of varying width and stipes of varying length. It makes an excellent basket fern and grows easily here. The named cultivars 'Corkscrew' and 'Fimbriata' and also grown. [Temperate to tropical; Epiphytic] 9A

Campyloneurum phyllitidis
(Florida Strap Fern) Tropical America. Fronds are as much as four feet long, semi-erect and arching. They are a pale, yellowish green and papery with a width of from 2 to 4 inches. Should grow easily here in a basket with a coarse mix, plenty of water and can stand quite a bit of sun. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic or Epipetric]. 15A

Campyloneurum xalapense
Strap Fern. Mexico. This fern lives in the wet montane forests. Fronds are 12 to 24 in. long and usually 1 to 2 in. wide, much wider than the more common C. angustifolium. [Temperate to Tropical; Epiphytic] 9A

Cheilanthes beuchtienii
(no common name) North America and Mexico. This terrestrial fern grows to be 8-24 inches tall. An attractive species with grey and purple markings on the fronds. Can be tricky to grow, needing well-drained neutral to alkaline soils, sun, and plenty of air movement. [Temperate; Xeric Terrestrial] 3C

Cheilanthes bonariensis
(No common name) North America and Mexico. This fern presents a lovely arching clump of somewhat frilly fronds to about 18 in. in length. Grows in rough gravelly soil and full sun. May be the most common fern in Mexico. Grows well here with good drainage and air movement. [Temperate to semi-tropical, Xeric terrestrial] 3C

Cheilanthes fendleri
Fendler's Lip Fern. Southeast North America. A small species of lip fern favoring sun and dry conditions. Grows on slopes and ridges from 3500 to 9000 feet. This fern is evergreen. [Temperate; Xeric Terrestrial] 1D

Cheilanthes hastata
(No common name) South Africa. Also known as Pellaea hastata. The fronds are normally pinnate (occasionally pinnatifid) and the larger pinnules have fairly large basal lobes. Fronds are about ten inches long. The plants live in collections of mulch around large rocks in an area where all the rainfall is in the winter. Plants die back completely in the summer. Should grow well here with proper care. [Xerophytic; Terrestrial].

Cheilanthes lanosa
Hairy Lip Fern. North America. Likes dry conditions in a sunny situation. A neat fern with clumps of bright green fronds that are densely woolly on the underside., this fern grows to be 8-16 inches tall. [Temperate to semi-tropical, Xeric Terrestrial] 2C

Cheilanthes lendigera
Beaded Lip Fern. North America and Mexico. This terrestrial fern grows to be about 12 inches tall. Blade is up to 4-pinnate near the base tapering to a terminal segment that is small and bead-like which accounts for its common name. Needs well-drained neutral to alkaline soils, sun, and plenty of air movement. [Temperate; Xeric Terrestrial] 2D

Cheilanthes pringlei
(Pringle's Lip Fern) Sonoran desert of Arizona and Mexico. This little beauty comes from the rocky hills and ledges where it grows in the shelter of boulders or in cracks in the igneous rocks. It forms clumps of bright green lacy fronds to about 2 ft long. It should need plenty of sun and air movement in a very well drained soil but it is new to cultivation and too soon to say if it will grow well here. [Xerophytic; Terrestrial] 2D

Cheilanthes sieberi
Mulga Fern. Curly Fern. Australia and New Zealand. This plant grows to be 4-20 inches tall. Different from many of the Cheilanthes, this lip fern likes a good bit of water. In its native habitat it grows actively during monsoon weather and becomes dormant during dry weather. It does well planted among rocks in a sunny situation in acid humus-rich loam. A widely distributed fern, it has evenly divided fronds with a lacy appearance. [Semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 3C

Cheilanthes tomentosa
Woolly Lip Fern. North America and Mexico. This terrestrial fern grows to be 8-24 inches tall. An attractive species with brown woolly hairs on the stipes and white woolly hairs on the fronds. Can be tricky to grow, needing well-drained neutral to alkaline soils, sun, and plenty of air movement. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Xeric Terrestrial] 2C

Cheilanthes wrightii
Wright's Lip Fern. Southern Arizona & New Mexico, Northern Mexico. Long creeping Cheilanthes with a more open frond pattern than most. It lives on rocky slopes in the rubble of igneous rock. The rachis is smooth and hairless. [Hot and dry; Xeric Terrestrial] 3C

Cibotium glaucum
Hawaiian Tree Fern or Hapu'u. Hawaii. This species has spreading, thick-textured, almost leathery fronds that look waxy underneath. This is a terrestrial fern that can grow to be 6-20 feet tall with fronds 6-12 feet long. The plants like warm, sheltered conditions with plenty of moisture. Young plants are sensitive to wind damage. Will grow well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 18A

Cryptogramma crispa
Rock Brake or Parsley Fern. Europe, Asia Minor, Afghanistan. This is a fairly small fern (8-12 inches) which likes bright light and good drainage. This fern hates lime and will grow only in acid soils. Seldom seen here but should grow well in So. Cal. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 4D

Cyathea aramagemensis
Kanehira. Mariana Islands. This is a beautiful, lacy tree fern that comes from three tiny islands in the Mariana archipelago. It has large tawny red-gold scales, ridged stipes and tri-pinnate fronds. It seems to do well here but the few local examples seem to have a penchant for being somewhat prostrate and developing multiple "trunks". [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 18A

Cyathea brownii
Norfolk Island Tree Fern. Norfolk Island. This tree fern is very similar to the more popular Cyathea cooperi (the Australian Tree Fern) but the trunk and the fronds are more massive. This fern grows to a height of about 18 ft with fronds about ten feet long. It likes light shade with plenty of sun. Grows well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; terrestrial] 18A

Cyathea mexicana
(No common name.) Mexico. A tall tree fern with a stout trunk well-covered with sharp black spikes. The fronds are lacy and bright green but the spikes continue onto the stipes making this an interesting but unattractive garden plant. With proper shade protection the plants should grow here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 18A

Cyathea tomentosissima
(No common name). New Guinea. This small wooly tree fern comes from the highlands of New Guinea (near 10,000 feet) where it lives in the open scrub land. The light brown scales and hairs covering most of the plant cause its distinct appearance. The pinnules never fully open, remaining slightly curled along the edges. Although its home is in the tropics its high altitude climate allows it to adjust and grow well here. [Semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 18A

Cyclosorus interruptus
(No common name) India, Sri Lanka, Indo-China China, Malaysia, Australia. A fair sized clumping fern that likes lots of water, preferably in swampy conditions. Bi-pinnate with deeply divided pinnules. Fertile fronds are longer and much narrower than the sterile ones. Easy to grow if kept damp. Will make a good landscape plant. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8B

Cyrtomium caryotideum
Dwarf Holly Fern. North India, Japan, and China. This desirable fern gets to be 6-12 inches tall. The plants have leathery fronds of a verdant green and a compact growth habit. They succeed well in pots or among rocks. Grows readily in acid, humus-rich soils and likes a semi-shady position. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Cyrtomium falcatum
Japanese Holly Fern. Japan, Korea, China. 12-30 inches tall. An exceedingly popular fern prized for its decorative, dark green, leathery fronds. Plants are hardy, long-lived and easy to grow here. There are several named forms such as Mayii & Rochfordiana that differ in the amount of cresting or lacerating of the pinnules. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Cyrtomium fortunei
(no common name) Japan, Korea, and China. This fern gets to be 8-16 inches tall. It is a very handsome species with erect shiny, dark green fronds that have 18 - 24 drawn out segments. This plant does well in a shady position in acid, humus-rich loamy soil. The variety 'Intermedia' has only 9 - 12 segments. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Cyrtomium macrophyllum
(no common name) Japan, China and North India. This fern can get to be 8-16 inches tall with large sparse fronds. The color tends to be light green and the plants grow well in a shady position in acid, humus-rich soil. The individual pinnules (leaves) tend to be larger than most other Cyrtomiums. Has proven difficult to grow here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Cystopteris bulbifera
Berry Bladder Fern. Canada, USA. This is a most distinctive fern with lax or pendant fronds that produce numerous bulbils (plantlets) from the underside. These can fall and develop new plants. This fern characteristically grows in crevices of limestone rocks, often in colonies. It adapts easily to cultivation and, in fact, can become weedy. It likes moist conditions in a semi-shady aspect and responds to the use of lime. This fern gets to be 12-30 inches tall. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8C

Cystopteris fragilis
Fragile Fern or Brittle Bladder Fern. Worldwide in temperate regions. A delicate fern with deeply cut, feathery, ten inch fronds. Likes deep shade. Good for rock gardens, but not good in pots. Fronds react to dry spells by turning reddish brown, but recover with water. Likes a pH of 7-8. Difficult here. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 9C

D

Davallia canariensis

Canary Island Davallia. Canary Islands, Madeira. This fern is also known as Davallia portugal in the nursery trade. A slow-growing, small to medium-sized tropical fern which grows on walls or trees. This fern is quite hardy. Keep moist. Adaptable to low light or high light. Ideal for hanging baskets. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 7D

Davallia denticulata
Toothed Davallia. India, Malaysia, New Guinea, Australia. A widely distributed species usually found in exposed situations often on rocks or on sandy soil. Deciduous during the winter. Has hairy rhizomes which wrap around its basket. Low to high light. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial, Epiphytic, Epipetric] 7D

Davallia embolstegia
(no common name) Philippines and Borneo. This fern is also be known as Davallia japonica. It is a medium-sized, semi-hardy tropical fern with large, lacy, light green fronds that are produced in abundance from the spreading rhizomes. Adaptable to low or high light. Keep moist. Can be grown here but seldom is. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 13D

Davallia fejeensis
Lacy Hare's-foot Fern or Fiji Davallia. Fiji. This fern grows fronds up to 40 inches long. The plants are very long-lived and individual fronds on healthy plants can last 2-3 years. The thick rhizomes usually grow through the air. It has large, finely-divided fronds with very small segments. A tender plant, adaptable to low light or high light. Needs high humidity but can be grown well here. Has several named form such as 'Major' and 'Plumosa'. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 7D

Davallia mariesii
Hare's-foot Fern or Ball Fern. From Japan and Korea. This is one of the most popular ferns in cultivation . It is a small tropical fern ideal for hanging baskets with reddish-white hairy rhizomes with 6-12 inch fronds. The plants are hardy and cold-resistant and the fronds are shed each year. Medium to high humidity. Adaptable to low light or high light. Keep moist. Variety 'Stenolepis', which has white scales on its rhizome, is usually sold here as D. trichomanoides. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1D

Davallia pyxidata
Australian Hare's-foot Fern. Australia. This fern grows fronds to 3 feet in length. An easily-grown fern with woody, erect, or spreading rhizomes and leathery, dark green fronds. Juvenile or sterile fronds may be coarsely-divided, while fertile fronds are much finer. Good as a hanging basket or as a ground cover. Likes humidity, but a greenhouse is not necessary. Low to high light, keep moist. [Temperate to tropical; Epiphytic, Terrestrial] 7D

Davallia repens
Dwarf Hare's-foot Fern. India, Japan, Malaysia, New Guinea, Australia. Until recently known as Humata repens. This small Davallia has fronds only 4 to 8 inches long and slender whitish rhizomes. It is usually found scrambling on rocks near streams at the edge of rain forests but also grows as an epiphyte on the nearby trees. Although most of its natural territory is tropical it will grow well here on a basket with bright shade and moisture. [Tropical to semi-tropical, epipetric & epiphytic] 1D

Davallia solida
Giant Hare's-foot Fern or Polynesian Davallia. Asia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Grows fronds to 4 feet in length. Good as a hanging basket or as a ground cover. Coarse, broad, stiff, two-foot fronds on woody brown rhizomes that stick out of the basket. Likes humidity, but a greenhouse is not necessary here if given good light and kept moist. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 13D

Davallia trichomanoides
Squirrel's Foot Fern or Rabbit's Foot Fern. Malaysia, New Guinea, Indonesia. A tropical epiphytic fern ideal for hanging baskets. Has 9-12 inch triangular fronds and finely divided, reddish-brown hairy rhizomes. Rhizomes will wrap completely around the basket. Most plants sold here by this name are, in fact, D. mairesii 'Stenolepis'. Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 7D

Hay-Scented Fern or Boulder Fern. Canada, Northern U.S. This is a medium to large terrestrial fern with creeping rhizomes that quickly form a dense mat of 1-3 foot fronds. Leaflets are three inches apart. This fern is useful as a ground cover on slopes. (Considered a weed in some areas.) Adaptable to varying conditions of light and shade. Difficult here. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 7C

Deparia petersonii
Japanese Lady Fern. Australia, New Zealand, Asia and the Pacific Islands. Until recently known as Athyrium japonicum or Lunathyrium japonicum. This is an airy fern with pinnate-pinnatifid fronds to about 2 ft. long which are distinguished by having both rachis and major pinnules grooved but with the grooves not connected. It should be easy to grow it has a tendency to become a weed. [Temperate to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 8C

Dicksonia antarctica
Soft Tree Fern. Australia. This popular fern is one of the most easily cultivated and is as climate tolerant as any tree fern. It is fairly slow growing and sports a large crown of fronds. Old dead fronds fall and make a skirt around the trunk that is heavy and covered with soft fibrous roots. [Temperate to Semi-temperate, Terrestrial] 18A

Dicksonia fibrosa
Golden Tree Fern, Wheki-ponga. New Zealand. This fern is quite similar to its cousin Dicksonia antarctica except that the fronds are harsher. It also has a heavy trunk that grows to about 15 feet tall and if allowed the dead fronds will hang on to form a skirt. It is also quite tolerant of different climates and should do well here. In anything but full sun. [Temperate to Semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 18A

Dicksonia squarrosa
Rough Tree Fern, Wheki. New Zealand. A rather slander tree fern with a heavy, graceful top of dark green, glossy fronds which are pale on the bottom. It is unusual in that it colonizes by means of underground stolons and can form a large clump. It grows the full length of New Zealand, sometimes right down to the water's edge. It should be easy to grow here but is not often seen. [Temperate to Semi-temperate, Terrestrial] 18A

Dictymia brownii
Strap Fern. Australia. This little epiphyte has thin creeping rhizomes and long, to 16", strap-like fronds. It has a single row of sporangia up each side of the midvein on the back of the fronds. It grows on the trees and rocks in cool humid rain forests. Needs a greenhouse or terrarium to succeed here. [Tropical to temperate; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 8A

Didymochlaena truncatula
Mahogany Fern or Moon Fern. Pantropical This fern is also called Didymochlaena lunulata. A medium-sized tender terrestrial fern found in the tropics. Rarely cultivated. Fronds are a lustrous green, semi-leathery, ovate (egg-shaped), and rectangular in shape. Requires medium light and must be kept moist. Should grow here but has proven difficult. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 12C

Diplazium esculentum
Edible Fern, Vegetable Fern. Philippines, New Guinea, India, Indonesia, Polynesia. This fern grows strongly and spreads by stolons. Young fronds and croziers are eaten raw in salads in the Pacific islands. Young plants have pinnate fronds but as they mature the fronds become bi-pinnate. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 11C

Doodia media
Hacksaw Fern. Good in rock gardens, window boxes, and terrariums. Characterized by erect narrow tufts of 12-18 inch rough textured fronds. The fronds have small leaflets with saw-toothed edges, and close-set pinnae. Grows well in light shade. Keep moist. [Temperate to tropical; Terrestrial] 2B

Doryopteris nobilis
(No common name) Central and South America. This attractive small fern has fronds that look like little delta wings. It lives at low altitudes where it is damp and airy. It is marginal outdoors even in the coastal areas of Southern California but will grow well with even a little protection which will help to keep the humidity up. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 11A

Doryopteris pedata
Hand Fern. Central and South America, West Indies. The fronds, which grow to about 16 inches long, are dark green, shaped like a hand, and sit on a long stiff black stem. The variety Palmata is the one most commonly seen in cultivation and it accentuates this hand-like appearance. The plant grows reasonably well here and like lots of bright light and air movement. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 5A

Drynaria rigidula
Basket Fern. Oceania and tropical Australia. This huge epiphyte grows in the tops of tall trees and sometimes even in old walls. The sterile fronds are broad at the bottom and form large baskets while the fertile fronds are long and drooping. It grows well here in large baskets with a coarse mix, plenty of light and good air circulation. There are a couple of cultivars the most prized of which is the sterile 'Whitei'. The pinnules on its fertile fronds are deeply incised and crowded together to give a ruffled appearance.[Tropical to temperate; Epiphytic] 15B

Dryopteris affinis
Scaly Male Fern. Europe, South-west Asia. This fern, or rather a group of ferns known as the D. Affinis complex, are the subject of much research and debate among the botanists. There are five morphotypes, forms having slightly different characteristics but not different enough to make separate species, each of which may have many varieties or cultivars. It is also another of the Victorian ferns and new forms or varieties were highly prized. It is a medium sized deciduous fern forming separable clumps. Most forms are difficult here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9B

Dryopteris cycadina
Shaggy Shield Fern. India, China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Thailand. This fern is also found as Dryopteris atrata. Known as a shaggy fern because of the long black scales which cover the stipe (stem) and the undersides of the side branches. The pinnules (leaves) are olive green with a dark green mid-vein. It is of medium size, likes partial shade, and does not like to be too damp. This fern should do well in Southern California. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Dryopteris dilatata
Broad Buckler Fern. From Europe, North America, South Africa, Greenland, and Japan, this widely dispersed species grows to 60 inches high in loamy soil with shade or partial shade. It forms a spreading rosette of broad triangular fronds. It has several named cultivars, but neither it nor its cultivars do well in Southern California. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Dryopteris erythrosora
Autumn Fern. China, Japan, and Korea. This fern grows to be up to 18 inches tall. The young fronds are an unusual coppery color and contrast pleasantly with the older fronds. The name of the plant is derived from the bright red sori on the underside of the leaves [erythro = red, sora = sori]. Plants will succeed in situations from deep shade to partial sun and in a range of soils, providing the drainage is adequate. Also makes a good pot subject, but is easy to over water. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8C

Dryopteris filix-mas
Male Fern. Northern Europe, North America and Asia. This is another of the ferns that formed the foundation of the Victorian fern craze. It likes a shady situation with neutral to acid soil. The fern is completely deciduous, turning brown and dying back completely with a whole new flush of green growth in the spring. There are many named cultivars with strange and wonderful frond forms. Like most deciduous ferns they are all difficult to grow in Southern California. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Dryopteris koidsumiana
No Common Name. Japan. This is a beautiful little plant with red new fronds which looks a lot like the Autumn Fern, Dryopteris erythrosora. These plants are grown from spores from Yaku-shima Island, Japan. As a recent introduction this is still a 'rare' plant and with its beautiful growth habit is well worth growing. Yaku-shima is an almost tropical island at the southern tip of Japan. Temperatures there should not be too different from ours but, as usual, the humidity is much higher. Make sure this little terrestrial is well watered and not allowed to dry out. [Temperate to Semi-tropical; Terrestrial]

Dryopteris pacifica
[No Common Name] Japan, Korea, China. Similar to D. bissetiana and D. sacrosancta. This medium sized fern has triangular glossy green fronds. It is somewhat compact but the spaces between the pinnules give it an open appearance. It is new in this area and may or may not like it here. [Temperate to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 10D

E

Edanyoa difformis

(No common name) Philippines, Southeast Asia. This pretty little fern lives in the ground but creeps over rock and up the trunks of trees. It lives in the stream beds where it is hot and humid. It is strictly a terrarium or greenhouse plant here in Southern California. [Tropical; Terrestrial] 5C

Elaphoglossum genus
This genus of at least 600 species is seldom cultivated here, probably because most originate in the humid American tropics and require constant high humidity. Many species in cultivation are unnamed and there are probably even more undiscovered species still in the wild. They are characterized by simple, entire, usually leathery fronds. The sporangia cover the entire back of a fertile frond. Most are epiphytic although terrestrial forms are not unusual.

Elaphoglossum crinitum
Elephant Ear Fern. Tropical America, West Indies. This spectacular fern has simple fronds that appear like huge paddles up to 20 inches long. The frond is about half stipe and half lamina and all are covered with long black scales. Young fronds appear black because of the density of these scales that appear to thin out as the frond grows. Like all Elaphoglossums the back of each fertile frond is covered with sporangia. Requires a atmosphere of constant high humidity. [Tropical; Epiphytic]

Elaphoglossum peltatum X
(No common name) Also known as Peltapteris peltata. Southern Mexico; Guatemala to Panama. This small crawler is very common on mossy tree trunks and fallen logs in the hot humid tropics. Its deeply incised fronds are different from most Elaphoglossums but make it a most attractive plant.. The width of the incisions varies widely and the fertile fronds are undivided. Can be grown here only in a terrarium or greenhouse. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 2A

Elaphoglossum vestitum
(no common name) Mexico. Elaphoglossums are seldom-cultivated ferns, probably because most originate in the humid tropics and can be tricky to grow, especially in Southern California's dry air. They are characterized by the sporangia that can cover the entire back of a fertile frond. This species originates in southern Mexico and must be well-drained, but the plant likes to stay moist. This particular species does well here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 8A

G

Goniophlebium subauriculatum

(No common name). North India, China, Malaysia, Australia, New Guinea. A very large fern from the tops of the tropical rainforests. Its long willowy fronds make it one of the most desirable garden fern. Particularly prized is the variant 'Knightiae' whose deeply incised pinnules give it a light feathery look. These plants grow well here with some shade and plenty of air movement. Can be grown in the ground. [Temperate to tropical, Epiphytic, Terrestrial] 13B
H

Hemionitus arifolia

(No common name). South-east Asia, India. This is a gorgeous, shiny little fern with heart-shaped 4" to 6" fronds which needs a terrarium or greenhouse to grow well here. It likes slightly alkaline soil and should be kept in a small pot for as long as possible. Small plantlets form near the base of the blades and may be removed for propagation. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 5A

Hemionitus palmata
Strawberry Fern. Central and South America, West Indies. This attractive little fern (4"-12") is named for its leaves which look like those of a strawberry plant. The sterile fronds are clustered beneath the much taller fertile fronds. It can be propagated by use of the little plantlets that form near the base of the blades. Can be grown in a small pot with light soil but may need a little protection from the cold in this climate.[Semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 5A

Humata parvul
(No common name) Malaysia, Borneo. This tiny little tree dweller grows lacy looking 1" to 2" fronds on a slender threadlike rhizome. It must have continuous high humidity so requires a greenhouse or terrarium to grow in Southern California. It is attractive enough to make it worthwhile. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1D

Humata tyermanii
Silver Hare's-foot Fern. This smallish fern from China grows fronds up to 8-12 inches long. A choice fern with widely creeping silvery rhizomes and neat, finely divided, dark green fronds which are purplish when young. Makes an excellent basket specimen that grows easily in the Southern California area. Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1D

Huperzia hamiltonii
(No common name) India This small fern ally lives mostly on mossy tree branches in wet and shady places. Branches are mostly short, erect and rigid. It is dimorphic and the petioles are lanceolate to linear, thick and shiny. It will tolerate a temperature range from 43? F to 84? F so it should grow here along the coast. A very well draining mix is recommended with plenty of air movement, humidity and light, but no sun. [Tropical or semi-tropical, Epiphytic] 3A

L

Lemmaphyllum microphyllum

Green Penny Fern. India, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan. A small creeping epiphyte with small, thick, shiny, simple dimorphic fronds. The sterile fronds, from which it gets it common name, are rounded and fleshy while the fertile fronds are longer and fewer in number. It grows well on a tree fern slab or in a small basket and will cover the surface. Although highly tropical in appearance it is really quite temperature tolerant and grows very well here. [Tropical to temperate; Epiphytic] 2A

Llavea cordifolia
(no common name) Central America. This is the only species in the Llavea genus. Growing to over 2 feet long, the fronds are dimorphic with spore packets being developed in specialized finger-like segments at the ends of the mature fronds. Naturally occurs in exposed rocky situations, usually on limestone. Plants can be grown in the Southern California area, but have a dormant period during the winter when they should be kept on the dry side. An open neutral to alkaline mix is necessary. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Lophosoria quadripinnata
(No common name) Central and South America. The only species in the genus is a primitive tree fern. Above ground it is somewhat similar to the Dicksonias except for the large fronds which are glaucus (grayish) on the underside and the sori have no indusium. Below ground the rhizomes are quite different. It lives in the high montane forests in tropical America and seems to be happy here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial]

Lygodium japonicum
(No common name) Tropical Asia and Australia. One of the few real climbing (vining) ferns. Each of the long climbing tendrils is in fact a complete frond and may reach a height of 10 to 12 feet here. Fertile pinnules are much more complex than the sterile pinnules. Its natural habitat is fairly dry and the plant is dormant in the dry season. Here, it is dormant in the winter but relatively easy to grow. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 14C
M

Marratia salicina

(Potato Fern) Australia, New Zealand. One of a genus of huge heavy fleshy ferns with fronds to 13 ft. In length. Grows in warm shady forests and likes lots of moisture. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 11B

Marsilea crenata
Four-leaf Fern. Philippines. This is an aquatic ferns which lives in water up to about 8 inches deep. Its rhizomes are fast growing and long creeping. It may rapidly become a weed in the rice paddies. The fronds are cross shaped with each segment forming a little fan with slightly serrate edges. [Tropical; .Aquatic] 8A

Marsilea mutica
(No common name) Australia, New Caledonia. This aquatic fern spreads by long creeping rhizomes that root in the mud. The stems reach to the surface and produce four-lobed pinnules with a distinctive brown band. They grow well here and make good ornamental covering for fish ponds. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Aquatic] 8A

Marsilea quadrifolia
Water Clover, Water Shamrock. Europe, North America, China, Japan, Korea. These plants typically grow in ponds or along the sides of streams. They root in the mud at the bottom and send up stipes, or stems, perhaps two feet long, to the surface. The floating blade is usually made up of four pinnules and looks like a clover leaf. The sporangia are encased in sporocarps, a hard shelled husk at the base of the pinnules. [Temperate to semi-tropical, Aquatic] 8A

Matteuccia orientalis
(No common name) China, Japan, Korea. This plant is about half the size of its cousin Matteuccia struthiopteris and is quite uncommon here. The fertile fronds are upright to about 3 ft. while the sterile fronds lie nearly flat on the ground. It needs wet, soft, loamy soil and will spread by underground rhizomes. [Temperate, Terrestrial 17B

Matteuccia struthiopteris
(Ostrich Fern) North America, Europe, Japan, China. This is a feathery monster with fronds to five feet. It spreads by underground rhizomes with large bunches of feathery fronds at intervals. Needs loamy, acid soil. A very hardy fern it has proven difficult to keep alive here. Frequently the old plant will die during the winter but new clusters will appear in the spring. [Temperate, Terrestrial] 17B

Microgramma lycopodioides
(No common name) Mexico, Central and South America. This fern tends to cover trees with creeping masses of bright green fronds to about 8 in. In length. The slender rhizomes branch freely and are covered with rusty brown scales. Likes it warm, moist and airy but will grow outside here if protected from extra dry air. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 2A

Microgramma squamulosa
(No common name) Brazil. This fern has been known until recently as Polypodium squamulosum. It is native to Brazil but was introduced into England in 1846. It is a small epiphyte with a frequently branching rhizome and simple fronds to about 3 inches in length. The sterile fronds make a beautiful display with a prominent vein pattern that almost makes them look pinnate. It must be protected from low temperatures and therefor usually must be grown in a terrarium or greenhouse where it makes a beautiful basket plant.. It can be grown outside here in protected areas. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 2A

Microgramma vaccinifolia
(No common name) South America. This fern has been known until recently as Polypodium vaccinifolium. This little crawler is dimorphic with simple fronds to about 4 inches long. It has scaly white rhizomes and grows quite slowly. It makes a great basket fern but may need protection in our climate. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic 2A

Microlepia platyphylla
(no common name) India, Japan, the Philippines, and China. Related to the lace fern (Microlepia strigosa), this fern grows to be six feet tall. It is a clumping fern that can be used to shelter smaller species. It likes shade in a well-drained, loamy soil. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 15D

Microlepia speluncae
(No common name) Pantropical. This fern has huge arching fronds to 5 ft. In length. It grows is semi-exposed locations along the edges of forests, road banks, etc. It should grow well here but is seldom seen, perhaps because of its size. [Temperate to tropical; Terrestrial] 9D

Microlepia strigosa
Lace Fern. Tropical Asia, Micronesia. A thick-growing terrestrial fern that grows to about 40 inches tall. The fronds are much divided and lacy looking, hence the common name. Despite its tropical origin it grows well here and will make thick background coverage. It also makes good greenery for flower arrangements. Technically, the plant usually sold and grown here is M. pseudo-strigosa but the differences are very slight. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9D

Microsorum linguiforme
(No common name) Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea, Fiji. This is an epiphyte with erect, dark green, thin textured fronds to about 20 in. In length. They serve to trap litter which rots down to provide food for the plant. May be grown in a basket with coarse soil. Needs greenhouse protection here in Southern California. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphyte] 8A

Microsorum muscifolium
(No common name) Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea. This fern was earlier known as Polypodium muscifolium. It is very large for a tree climber with a wide creeping rhizome and simple fronds to about 3 ft. In length. The fronds are thin and the vein pattern is prominent. Although this fern is listed a being semi-tropical it is probably on the border of being growable unprotected in this area. Should grow easily in a humidity enclosure. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 7A

Microsorum normale
(no common name) North India, South China, Malaysia, New Guinea, and Australia. This fern has thinly-textured, strap-shaped fronds up to 16 in. long which end in a short point. It adapts well to cultivation and can be grown in baskets or pots with a coarse mixture. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9A

Microsorum punctatum
(No common name) Old World pan-tropical. Grows mostly on large boulders in sunny but humid locations. Forms large colonies of plants with tall, leathery, simple fronds. Grows well in baskets or large containers with coarse, quick draining mixture. Until recently was known as Polypodium polycarpon. Has a large number of named forms, the best known being 'Grandiceps'. [Tropical to Semi-tropical; Epipetric] 9A

Microsorum steerei
(No common name) Vietnam, South China, Taiwan. This is a medium sized, short creeping epiphyte with thick rhizomes and fairly heavy fronds from 12 to 16 inches long. It should be grown in a basket or tree-fern pot and is probably borderline to grow outdoors here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 9A

Microsorum vieillardii
Kangaroo Fern. New Caledonia. This fern is very similar to M. diversifolium and M. scolopendrium but its single row of sunken sori are very close to the margin of the pinnule. Its long fat rhizomes scramble on the ground and up trees. Although this group is common throughout the tropics they are hardy enough to grow easily here. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 7B

N

Nephrolepis biserrata

Coarse Sword Fern. Pantropical. This is a large, coarse fern that grows fronds to over 8 feet long. It can be grown easily as a garden plant or in a pot. In the ground, the plant tends to be invasive. Can stand considerable sun when grown close to the coast. Seldom seen here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial, Epiphytic] 11B

Nephrolepis cordifolia
Sword Fern, Fishbone Fern. Pantropical. This fern will grow almost anywhere, in trees, on rocks or in the ground and in nearly any tropical or temperate climate and will take full sun. Although it grows to about 30" tall it is a popular ground cover in this area. The feature that separates it from other members of the genus is the formation of underground nodes for storing food and water. There are a number of named cultivars including 'Plumosa', 'Petticoat' and 'Duffii'. The highly popular 'Kimberly Queen' is often listed as being a cultivar of N. obliterata but it, in fact, belongs with the other cultivars of this species. [Tropical to temperate; Terrestrial, Epiphytic] 11B

Nephrolepis exaltata
Sword Fern, Boston Fern. Florida, Mexico, Brazil, West Indies. The principal feature of the species is its extreme variability and as result there are hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Many of them are named but there are so many that it is next to impossible to keep them defined and identified. Most of the fancy cultivars are sterile and must be propagated from the runners or stolons that cause the plants to spread rapidly, or by tissue culture. The first mutant to be noticed by the public was actually found in Philadelphia but had been shipped to Boston and became the famous 'Boston Fern'. Although these various forms are usually grown in pots or baskets because they tend to have a drooping habit the fern is really terrestrial. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 11B

Nephrolepis falcata
Weeping Sword Fern. Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia. This beautiful fern is much more climatically tolerant than its origins would indicate and grows happily here. Fronds may grow to eight feet and are best displayed by planting in a large basket. If kept damp it will grow in full sun. The most popular form is known as N. falcata 'Furcans'. It is commonly known as the 'Fishtail Fern' as each pinnule is regularly forked to look like a fish tail. Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial, Epiphytic] 17B

Nephrolepis lauterbachii
(No common name) New Guinea. We don't know much about this little beauty except that comes from the highlands of New Guinea. It remains a delicate, graceful dwarf that probably grows on trees. It is marginal for outdoor growing here, particularly in areas which freeze. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 3B

Niphidium crassifolium
(No common name) Mexico, Central and South America. This fern was known until recently as Polypodium crassifolium. It is a large epiphyte with fairly heavy erect simple fronds to a length of 60 in. It grows well in baskets or large pots and will do well in Southern California. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphyte] 8A

Notholaena californica
California Cloak Fern. Southern California & Arizona and adjacent Mexico. This little Cheilanthoid stands about 8 inches tall with broad pentagonal fronds. There are two prominent sub-species one with yellow farina on the back of the frond and the other with white. Both are found in Southern California. They grow on rocky slopes and cliffs. They can be grown here in cultivation by providing lots of light, nearly perfect drainage and frequent watering. [Semi-tropical; Xeric Terrestrial] 3C

Notholaena grayi
Grey's Cloak Fern. Southern New Mexico, Texas and adjacent Mexico. This fern has also been known as Cheilanthes grayi. It has a frond about 8 inches long, mostly made u of the blade which is bi-pinnate and the back of which is covered with a conspicuous white farina. Grows on rocky slopes and cliffs. Seldom seen here. [Semi-tropical; Xeric Terrestrial] 3C

O

Onoclea sensibilis

(Sensitive Fern) North America, North Asia, A strongly dimorphic fern with the once or twice pinnate coarse sterile fronds and fertile fronds that are compressed to look like a bunch of tiny grapes. They like wet soil and in it will stand quite a bit of sun. In Southern California they are deciduous. They are up early in the spring and have finished they're season by August. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8C

Onychium japonicum
Japanese Claw Fern, Carrot Fern. North India, Thailand, Japan, China. These are small to medium-sized terrestrial ferns forming clumps. The fronds are finely divided. These plants can be grown in pots or in the ground. The fern grows in the tropics and subtropics but is a terrarium plant here. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 8D

Ophioderma pendulum
Ophioderma pendulum is sometimes known as the old-world adder's-tongue. In Malaysia, it is known as daun rambu [1]. It is a fern in the family Ophioglossaceae, and is the type species of the genus Ophioderma.

Osmunda japonica
(No common name). Japan, China, Philippines, North India. Very similar to O. regalis but is somewhat smaller and bushier. New growth is red. The plant is completely dimorphic with the fertile fronds smaller and completely curled. Grows very easily here in rich acid soil and is green for most of the year. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Osmunda lancea
(No common name). Japan. This beautiful fern is smaller than O. regalis and its narrow pinnules give it a rather lacy appearance. It supposedly grows easily in rich, well drained acid soil but is seldom seen here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Osmunda regalis
Royal Fern. Europe, Asia, North & South America, Africa. This is a spectacular tall fern (to 10 feet) which lives in damp soil, usually near the edge of permanent water. The European form, O. rigidula v. rigidula, is slightly different from the American form, O. rigidula v. spectabilis, but the differences are hard to find. They are deciduous in winter in most climates, even here. There are several cultivars of v. regalis with varying degrees of crisping and splitting of the pinnules. They are generally smaller than the species. There is a third form of the species, O. regalis v. brasiliensis, which is the south American form of the fern. It seems to be somewhat smaller and less deciduous than the other species and grows more easily here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 15C

P

Pecluma pectinata

(No common name) Tropical America. Until recently this fern was known as Polypodium pectinata. It is a handsome plant that grows in the low altitude montane forest. It is usually an epiphyte but is also found growing as a terrestrial. It has long narrow fronds to about 3 feet long with fairly short, narrow pinnules which stick nearly straight out from the rachis. It is grown here only in terrariums or greenhouses and is much smaller than in the wild. [Tropical, Terrestrial] 8B

Pellaea andromedifolia
Coffee Fern. California. This small fern grows to about 18 in. high. The main rachis or midrib is often zigzagged. Pinnules are blunt and dark green. It needs good drainage with lots of light and air movement. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9C

Pellaea brachyptera
(no common name) California. This is a hybrid form of Pellaea. These are hardy ferns with leathery greenish to blue-green fronds. Plants require excellent drainage and high light. Can take full sun near the coast. Not generally in cultivation. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 2C

Pellaea cordifolia
(no common name) Texas and Mexico. The short, rounded to heart-shaped, light green segments distinguish this fern. Best grown in the ground in a partial-sun situation. Needs well-drained neutral to alkaline soil. It does well here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9C

Pellaea falcata
Sickle Fern. Australia, New Zealand, India. This is a close relative of the more common Pellaea rotundifolia. The fronds are elongated and slightly curved, making a sickle shape. They like bright shade with perhaps a little sun, good drainage and a lot of water. Very susceptible to thrips. Grows well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9B

Pellaea glabella
Smooth Brake Fern. North America. There are several sub-species of this fern which are very similar in appearance but differ in chromosome structure. It is a small attractive fern that lives on limestone cliffs and likes water with great drainage. It is bi-pinnate, with 3 to 7 pinnules on each secondary rachis. This species is very seldom found in cultivation but, with care, will grow here. [Temperate to semi-temperate; Epipetric, Terrestrial] 3C

Pellaea mucronata
Bird's Foot Fern. Southwestern US and Mexico. In the common form the segments grow in groups of three, resembling a bird's toes but there is a form with only two segments to a group. It is best grown in the ground in a partial-sun situation and needs well-drained neutral to alkaline soil. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 2C

Pellaea ovata
(no common name) Texas, Central, and South America. A large growing species with zigzagged fronds to 48 in. long and a creeping, wiry rhizome. Best grown in the ground in a partial-sun situation. Needs well-drained neutral to alkaline soil. It does well here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9C

Pellaea rotundifolia
Button Fern. New Zealand. This plant has short, rounded, dark green pinnules which gives it both its common and Latin names. It grows well in acid soil with bright light and not too much water. It is beloved by thrips. Makes a good house plant. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9B

Pellaea viridis
Green Cliff Brake. Africa, Mauritius, Reunion. May also be referred to as Cheilanthes viridis. This small fern grows only to about 15 in. tall. It has clumps of bright green fronds with rather pointed pinnules. It needs good drainage plus strong light and may need lime. It has several forms, one of which P viridis ' Viridis' is often grown here. All forms are often listed as Cheilanthes. [Tropical to Temperate; Terrestrial] 9C

Pellaea wrightiana
(No common name) Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Utah & northern Mexico. This fern lives on rocky slopes and cliffs in hot dry country. It stands about 1 1/2 feet tall with bi-pinnate fronds with long narrow terminal pinnae. Not generally in cultivation. [Semi-tropical; Xeric Terrestrial] 3C

Phegopteris connectilis
Narrow Beech Fern. Northern U.S. and Canada, Asia. Has also been known as Thelypteris phegopteris A common forest plant that grows in acid moist soil in full shade. Not easy to grow in Southern California gardens. [Temperate to semi-temperate; Terrestrial]

Phlebodium Genus
Rabbit's Foot Ferns. Florida, Mexico, Central and South America, West Indies. Three species of very similar plants once included with the Polypodiums. Both epiphytic and terrestrial they have large fuzzy rhizomes and long pinnatifid fronds, often of a bluish green color. They are distinguished primarily by the pattern of the sori on the back of the pinnules. P. pseudo-aureum (or P. areolatum) has a single row of sori, P. aureum has a double row and P. decumanum has several rows of scattered sori. It also has its fronds more separated on the rhizome giving it an open airy look. There are a number of named cultivars or hybrids such as 'Mandianum', 'Mexican Tasseled' or 'Cristatum' in which the pattern of sori is highly variable making assignment to a species very difficult. [Temperate to tropical; Terrestrial, Epiphytic] 13B

Phymatosorus diversifolius
Kangaroo Fern. Australia, New Zealand. Also known as Microsorum diversifolium. A striking dark green fern with fronds to 2 ft. In length. With a creeping green rhizome it is at home on tree branches, scrambling on rocks, in baskets or on slabs, or even on the ground. It is very temperature tolerant and should do well here but is seldom seen. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 9B

Phymatosorus parksii
(No common name) Fiji, Samoa, Lord Howe Island. Also known as Microsorum parksii. A clumping fern with erect, pinnatifid, dark green fronds. It likes sandy soil and quite a bit of sun. Grows well in coastal regions and should do well here. Makes a good pot plant. [Tropical to Temperate; Terrestrial] 8B

Phymatosorus scolopendria
East Indian Polypody. Pantropical. Also called Microsorium scolopendrium by some botanists. This is a medium-sized fern that has a creeping, branching rhizome. It prefers high light and a drained garden soil or mix. It will tolerate some sunshine and is nearly hardy. It should do well here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 7B

Platycerium alcicorneSlide004
(no common name) Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles. There is some disagreement among botanists about this species. Often it is called P. vassei in the trade. The upper part of the base shields on plants from Madagascar are "crinkled" and ridged whereas those from Africa are smooth. These plants present no special growing requirements for the Southern California grower. These plants have off-shoots (pups) quite readily and are generally to the collector and are seldom grown from spore. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 21C

Platycerium andinumSlide009
American Staghorn. South America. This is the only new world Platycerium. This is a very handsome plant that has a narrow base and tends to grow tall. The plant has many fine hairs and appears to be somewhat lighter green than most. These plants are rare and are given special care and treatment in greenhouses. They need bright light and modest watering. They are said to suffer during heat waves. This plant does pup and presents no special problems in growing from spore. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 21C

Platycerium bifurcatum
Common Staghorn, Elkhorn. Australia. The species name comes from the word "bifurcate" which means to divide or fork. This describes the branching shape of the fertile fronds. Bifurcatum has generally narrow fertile fronds, upright with the ends drooping. New shields form in late summer and fall. Fertile fronds form most of the year. Many named cultivars are grown. Grows outside in Southern California. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 19A

Platycerium coronariumSlide015
Disk Staghorn. Indonesia. The name means 'crown' which describes the shape of the mature shield fronds. Shield fronds are lobed along the top and are light green, waxy, and corky. In nature, P. coronarium is almost always ant inhabited. This staghorn is difficult to establish and takes special conditions to grow in Southern California. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 21C

Platycerium elephantotisSlide026
Lettuce Staghorn. Tropical Africa. This distinctive staghorn has a large massive basal shield. Its fertile frond is long and wide and does not divide. There is some disagreement about the name with some botanists still favoring P. angolense. This is not an easy plant to grow and is usually kept in hot houses. It likes very bright light and can withstand drought quite well. This species does produce off-shoots (pups) and is not generally grown from spore. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 21C

Platycerium ellisiiSlide029
(no common name) Madagascar. In this plant a yellow green color and waxy coating are normal. It grows round shield fronds in the spring and early summer and grows fertile fronds in late summer and fall. The fertile fronds are wide and divided into two points near the tips. Collected from mangrove groves at sea level. Requires special care because of its shallow roots and rhizome that grows quickly upward. The plant must be trimmed and remounted often. It needs greenhouse protection here. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 21C

Platycerium grandeSlide034
(no common name) This species grows natively in the Philippines. This is very large plant with a wide base frond often three to four feet in width. The top of the base is more upright than its counterpart, P. superbum and it has two large spore patches on each fertile frond. P. grande is rare in cultivation and tends to be overprotected. It is said to be less tolerant of the cold than P. superbum and requires less water than bifurcatum. This species does not produce pups and propagates only from spore. Grows outside in at least coastal Southern California. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 21B

Platycerium hilliiSlide037
Green Staghorn. Australia and Papua New Guinea. P. hillii has wide, deep green fertile fronds. Growth requirements are similar to the Common Staghorn, P. bifurcatum, which makes it easy to grow here. The tops of the shield fronds tend to grow flat against the mounting surface, making it difficult to water. Pups easily with sufficient moisture and light. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Epiphytic] 20A

Platycerium holttumiiSlide045
(no common name) Thailand, Vietnam, Laos. This plant can have a very large basal shield and several fertile fronds. It resembles the P. grande, P. superbum and P. wandae and is very difficult to distinguish from the latter.. These plants require hot house conditions during California winters. They tend to rot if given too much water and enjoy having a lot of light. This plant is reproduced from spore. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 20B

Platycerium madagascarienseSlide050
(no common name) Madagascar. This small species has a unique basal shield that is heavily ridged and presents a most distinguished appearance. The fertile frond is split near the tip. The plant is rare and highly desirable. This plant requires a hothouse and prospers when provided with warm, humid conditions. The plant occasionally develops off-shoots (pups) and is also grown from spore. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 21D

Platycerium quadridichotomumSlide052
(no common name) Madagascar. This plant is small by comparison to many other platyceriums. It is a species rarely seen and seldom owned. It has a large upright base shield and longer fertile fronds, appearing like a miniature superbum. Little is known about their growing requirements but here they must be grown in protected greenhouses. They are grown with less water than most staghorns and are said to withstand drought. This species can be grown from pups and is not too difficult to grow from spore. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 21D

Platycerium ridleyiSlide057
(No common name) Malaysian Peninsula). This fern is named after the botanist, J. Ridley. The fronds bear a wonderful resemblance to deer antlers, truly earning the name "Staghorn." This is the smallest Platycerium that reproduces only by spore. It is often found on tree branches more than 80 feet above the ground. It needs air movement and bright light and is extremely difficult to grow. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 21D

Platycerium stemariaSlide061
Triangle Staghorn. Tropical Africa. This staghorn has a unique deep green fertile frond that is often very wide. The basal frond is narrow and the shield remains erect. The fern requires temperatures in excess of 55 degrees. It prospers when kept wet. This plant grows off-shoots (pups) easily and is generally not grown from spore. [Tropical; Epiphytic] 21C

Platycerium superbumSlide066
Giant Staghorn. The mature P. superbum makes a most striking exhibit in a collection. Its base shield is about four feet in width and the fertile frond descends about four feet. Its growing requirements include indirect light in a sheltered location that will protect it from sun and wind. The grower should avoid excessive watering as the mature plant stores a considerable amount of moisture. This species does not produce pups (off-shoots) and is reproduced only by spore. Grows easily outdoors in Southern California. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 21A

Platycerium veitchiiSlide072
Silver Elkhorn. Australia. P. veitchii is closely related to P. bifurcatum, but is covered with a great amount of white hair. The tops of the shield fronds grow into thin fingers. It has very upright fertile fronds. High light with some sunshine and limited moisture provides the most distinctive specimens. Easy to over water. Grows outside in Southern California. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Epiphytic] 19B

Platycerium wallichiiSlide075
Indian Staghorn. Thailand, Malaysia. This is a very rare and unusual Platycerium. It has an upright base shield and large, lobed fronds. It is a very attractive plant but is difficult to grow and is said to rot quite easily. Those who have owned this species have no general agreement as to its growing requirements. The plants seem to require alternate wet and dry periods and are not hardy. In Southern California they must be given hot house protection. These plants are propagated from spore that, unlike any other Platyceriums, is green. [Tropical, Epiphytic] 21C

Platycerium wandaeSlide080
Queen Staghorn. New Guinea. When fully grown, this is a very spectacular staghorn and under favorable conditions will grow even larger than P. superbum. Its basal shield grows upright and is very large. Its fertile fronds are short. These plants are generally grown out of doors and should be sheltered during cold weather. They are easily grown, but not cultivated in great abundance. This plant does not produce off-shoots (pups) and is reproduced only from spore. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic]

Platycerium. willinkiiSlide083
Java Staghorn. Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea. This easy-to-grow staghorn is closely related to P. bifurcatum and is often called a sub-species of it. The shields are different by being taller and more deeply lobed. The tops of the shield fronds often lose all their tissue except the veins. The long fertile fronds hang down. P. willinkii does well in medium light and moist moss. Needs slightly higher temperatures than P. bifurcatum, but it easy to grow in Southern California. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Epiphytic] 19B

Pleopeltis polypodioides
Resurrection Fern. North, Central and South America, South Africa. Also commonly known as Polypodium polypodioides. This is a very small plant which likes to grow in acidic conditions and high humidity. It has a branching rhizome and tends to grow in clumps. It lives on tree branches and occasionally on rocks. When dry it closes into a ball only to open again in the presence of moisture. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1B

Polypodium formosanum
Green Caterpillar Fern. Japan, Taiwan, South China. A long creeping fern with once pinnate light green fronds and lime green rhizomes that give its common name. It grows well here in a basket, particularly one made of tree fern fiber, which the fern will engulf. It goes dormant during the summer months and grows strongly during the winter. The is one rather strange variant which is known as a 'crested' form because of the spreading nature of the ends of the rhizome. [Tropical to semi-tropical, Epiphytic] 8B

Polypodium guttatum
(No common name) Central Mexico. Fronds look a bit like a small Phlebodium aureum with scattered scales on the underside. It grows on rocks or in soil in oak and oak-pine forests at altitudes up to 8000 feet. Like other Mexican Polypodiums it should grow well here in a basket or in the ground. [Semi-temperate to semi-tropical; Epipetric] 2B

Polypodium meniscilfolium
(no common name) Mexico, Central and South America. This fern has also been called P. fraxinifolium. This is medium-sized fern with a creeping, branching rhizome and long arching dark green fronds. It makes a good pot or basket plant. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 7B

Polypodium pyrrholepis
(No common name) Mexico. Epiphytic in the wet montane forests. Fronds are spaced out on a small reddish rhizome. Pinnules grow along a frond up to 20" long. The pinnules have scales, top and bottom, that are light brown in the centers of the pinnule and give the whole plant a red-brownish look. Grows well here in a moss filled basket. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 8B

Polypodium rhodopleuron
(No common name) Guatemala to Panama. Grows as an epiphyte in the wet montane forests. Once pinnate fronds grow to about 30 inches long. The stipe and pinnule veins are a bright red, especially when young, giving the fern a most interesting appearance. Grows here in a moss filled basket but is very sensitive to dryness and must be kept damp. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 7B

Polystichum acrostichoides
Christmas Fern. U.S. and Canada. This fern gets its name because it is evergreen, even in the snow. It is a medium-sized fern that grows in a spiral shape. Very hardy, it grows well in garden soil or a well drained potting mix. The cultivars 'Crispum' and 'Incisum' are also grown. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9B

Polystichum aculeatum
Hard Shield Fern. Europe, North India. This is a medium-sized fern with stiff, leathery, dark-green fronds. Like most of the Polystichums, it grows in a spiral shape. It is very hardy and may like some lime in the soil. Several attractive cultivars are grown. Seldom seen here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Polystichum andersonii
Anderson's Holly Fern. U.S., Canada, Alaska. This is a medium-sized fern showing the characteristic spiral shape associated with many Polystichums. It has hard, holly-like fronds. This species grows offshoots readily. Like most hardy ferns it is difficult to grow here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Polystichum braunii
Braun's Holly Fern. U.S., Canada, Europe, Japan, China. This fern is evergreen and hardy (cold tolerant). A medium-sized fern, this species shows the characteristic spiral shape associated with many Polystichums. It likes shady, moist conditions and is very difficult to grow here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Polystichum munitum
Western Sword Fern. North America. This fern really likes shady, moist locations. It is a cold resistant, clump-forming fern and is probably the most common fern in Northern California and the Northwest. It is hard to grow here but the cultivars 'Crispum' and' Prolifica' do better. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 16B

Polystichum polyblepharum
(no common name) Japan, Korea, China. This fern grows fronds up to 4 feet in length. An attractive fern that grows a rounded rosette of harsh textured, glossy, dark green fronds that are somewhat scaly underneath. This plant grows easily in shade and humus-rich, acid soil. Will grow here with a little care. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Polystichum setiferum
Soft Shield Fern. Europe. This is a very popular species that produces a ground-hugging rosette of fronds. Plantlets are produced along the length of the rachis (stem). Although hardy these plants are grown easily here in moist and shady to partly sunny conditions.[Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Polystichum tsus-simense
(no common name) China, Japan, Korea. A neat terrestrial fern valued for its compact, spreading rosette of fronds. The fronds are fairly stiff and leathery and an interesting dark purplish color when young. A good pot plant or in the ground in a shady position among rocks. Grows well here is Southern California. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Pronephrium simplex
(No common name) Hong Kong, Southern China. This is a short creeping fern that lives on wet ground and along the banks of rivers. It has fronds of length from 40 to 10 inches on stipes about half that long. The fertile fronds are narrower than the sterile ones and stand higher on longer stipes. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 2A

Pseudodrynaria coronans
(no common name) Also known as Aglaomorpha coronans. This is a large, coarse, epiphytic fern that forms a spreading crown of foliage in a hanging basket. The base of the fronds widens at the point the frond joins the hairy rhizome. The pinnae are broadly attached to the rachis (stem). it is a slow grower that will tolerate periods of dryness and aridity. Likes a moss-lined basket with loose humusy soil. Enjoys high light. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 14B

Psilotum nudum
Fork Ferns. Pantropical. A fern ally on which the stem is crowded and much branched. No distinctive frond. The leaves are reduced to needle-like structures or are completely absent. Most species are epiphytic, but can also grow in sandy soil or in rocks. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Terrestrial] 23C

Pteris argyraea
Silver Brake. India. This is one of the most beautiful and popular ferns in cultivation. It has a broad silver stripe down the center of the primary pinnules which is actually formed by two or three silver pinnules at the base of the secondary pinnules. It is sometimes listed as a variety of P. quadriaurita. It makes a good plant in the ground or in a container in bright shade, or even as a houseplant. [Temperate to Tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Pteris cretica
Cretan Brake Fern. Africa, Southern Europe, Asia. A very widespread species on which the fertile fronds stand stiffly erect and look very different from the sterile fronds. It is easy to grow here with the addition of a little lime. There are many attractive cultivars. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 9B

Pteris ensiformis
Slender Brake. India, China, Japan, Malaysia, Australia, Polynesia. This fern is widespread in its range, growing along the margins of forests and occasionally in old brick walls or other man-made structures. Two cultivars, 'Evergemensis' and 'Victoriae' are widely grown. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 3C

Pteris fauriei
(No common name} Japan, China. A small fern of the forest floor. Likes shade and well-drained mulch but is otherwise easy to grow. [Semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Pteris macilenta
New Zealand Brake. New Zealand. A very rapidly growing fern with fronds to about three feet in length. Very sensitive to drying roots. Its thrice pinnate fronds are very attractive and it grows well here in Southern California but is seldom seen. Needs a well mulched spot to keep its roots damp. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 8D

Pteris multifida
Spider Brake. China, Japan. This fern forms a clump of bright green fronds. It will grow in the ground, a pot or a basket and can be used indoors. Several cultivars are grown. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 3C

Pteris quadriaurita
(no common name) Pantropic. A widely distributed species in the tropical and semi-tropical parts of the world. A number of forms are in cultivation. Most have thinly textured fronds, which have long prominent spines along the veins. All forms of this fern adapt well to cultivation here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Pteris semipinnata
(No common name) Japan, China, Taiwan, Malaysia. This is a tall graceful fern with distinctive one-sided pinnules. It grows easily here but must not be allowed to stay wet during the winter. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 3C

Pteris tremula
Tender Brake. Australia, New Zealand, Fiji. This is a fast growing fern with delicate, lacy fronds. It will tolerate quite a bit of sun. It grows easily here but tends to become weedy. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 16D

Pteris umbrosa
Jungle Brake. Australia. This is a fern of jungle flats and rainforests, often colonizing stream banks. The plants form a very dense clump of dark green shiny fronds. They appreciate an abundance of water and mulch. They can grow to four feet tall. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10C

Pteris vittata
Chinese Brake, Ladder Brake. South Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Japan, Australia. A widespread fern which likes a lot of sun and a little lime. Fronds and pinnules (leaves) are long and tapered which gives it an open look. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 10B

Pyrrosia genus
This genus has about 100 species, mostly in the old world tropics. They are all epiphytic and are typified by leathery, undivided fronds that are covered by star-shaped hairs. Pyrrosia lingua, the Japanese Felt Fern has produced many named cultivars that are highly regarded and collected in Japan. This and many other species grow well and easily here on baskets or tree fern slabs.

Pyrrosia confluens
(No common name) Japan This fairly small, fleshy fern is typified by the lamina being widest below the middle and tapering slightly to a rounded tip. The longer fertile fronds have a single row of sori that usually run together around the tip. Should do well here with some shade and lots of light. Var. Confluens has a narrow tip; var. Dielsii has a wide one. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1A

Pyrrosia eleagnifolia
(No common name) New Zealand. Grows on both trees and rocks throughout New Zealand. Fronds are paddle-shaped with the fertile fronds shorter and wider than the sterile ones. Very similar to P. serpens which occurs in the Pacific islands but has fewer rows of sori. Will withstand very dry conditions and so grows well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 2A

Pyrrosia hastata
(no common name) Japan, China, Korea. Arrow-shaped, three-lobed leaves of heavy texture are characters of this basket or pot plant. The close creeping rhizomes make this into a slowly expanding clump. It is cold hardy and can also withstand tropical temperatures. It grows well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 8A

Pyrrosia lingua
Japanese Felt Fern. Japan, Taiwan, China, Vietnam, and northeast India. Fronds are sharply pointed and the underside may be covered with a reddish mat of hairs and spores. A very good choice for the Southern California area, this fern can be used as a basket plant, a potted plant, or a ground cover. It is very popular in Japan where culture of its many attractive cultivars has been developed into an art form. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1A

Pyrrosia longifolia
(no common name) Malaysia, Queensland, Australia and Polynesia. It is frost tender, and although the long shiny fronds look tough, they break easily. Makes a good basket plant and grows well here. There are several fancy cultivars. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 7A

Pyrrosia nummularifolia
Creeping Button Fern. India, Malaysia, Philippines. This small fern creeps along on this rhizomes and produces small round button-like sterile fronds and long narrow fertile fronds that reach a length of up to 3 inches. Should grow here if given plenty of light and humidity. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1A

Pyrrosia piloselloides
(no common name) India, New Guinea, and Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia. This is a small creeping fern with thick fleshy rounded fronds. It has been called Drymoglossum piloselloides. Unusually for a Pyrrosia it has a single row of sporangia along the margin of the fertile fronds. It needs greenhouse conditions here and will grow well in a terrarium in the home. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1A

Pyrrosia polydactylis
(no common name) Taiwan. This fern has long narrow lobes on the frond which give the appearance of a hand. This plant forms a slow growing clump in a basket or pot. It grows well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 2A

Pyrrosia samarensis
(No common name) Philippines. A rapidly creeping fern with thin rhizomes and long narrow fronds to 20 inches long. Fertile fronds are somewhat longer than the sterile ones and have sori clustered in the last quarter on the frond. Can be grow here. [Tropical; Epiphytic]

Pyrrosia serpens
(no common name)Pacific Islands. Fronds are paddle-shaped with the fertile fronds shorter and wider than the sterile ones. Very similar to P. eleagnifolia that occurs in New Zealand but has more rows of sori. Will withstand very dry conditions and so grows well here particularly as a basket plant. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Epipetric] 2A

R

Rumohra adiantiformis

Leather Fern. Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Polynesia, and South America. The Australian/New Zealand form has a slender rhizome and is epiphytic whereas the Cape form from Africa is more commonly terrestrial with heavy upright fronds. This is the one commonly grown here. It is easily grown in the garden or in a basket in the shade in the Southern California area. Good for a beginner. The foliage is widely used in the nursery trade because it is long lasting. The cultivar 'Santa Rosa' is also grown here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic, Terrestrial] 9D

S

Salvinia articulata

(no common name) South America. A free-floating fern that can be grown on a pond or aquarium, it occurs in tropical and subtropical waters in the Americas. It is sterile but propagates rapidly vegetatively. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Aquatic] 3A

Schaffneria nigripes
(No common name) Tropical America & Cuba. The only member of its genus, this is a compact little fern with short, roughly circular fronds to about 2 inches long. It lives on wet shaded limestone rocks in the hardwood forests. To grow here it must be kept in a terrarium or a greenhouse. [Tropical; Epipetric] 3A

Scyphularia pentaphylla
Black caterpillar Fern. Malaysia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Polynesia. Arching fronds are coarse and leathery. Rhizomes are covered with coarse black scales leading to its common name. This medium-sized fern makes a good basket plant. Not too difficult for a beginner - if you can locate a plant. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1B

Scyphularia pycnocarpa
(No common name) Fiji. This tree dweller grows fronds to a length of about 2 ft. They are openly pinnate with indentations along the margins. The long creeping rhizomes are covered with black scales. They make good basket plants which like a fair amount of sun. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 1B

Selaginella biglovii.
Bushy Spike-moss. Southern two-thirds of California, Northern Mexico. This native fern ally is found on dry rocky banks in the mountains of California south of the area of Sacramento. It forms small loosely bushy clumps from 2 to 8 inches high. It is very seldom cultivated. [Temperate xeric; Terrestrial] 23A

Selaginella eremophila
(No common name) Calif., Ariz. & Baja Calif. This fern ally is native to San Diego & Imperial counties with a spillover into Arizona. It lives on rocky or sandy slopes where it forms thick mats only about half an inch high. Each stem has a clump of eight leaves and they all curl up for protection in the summer time. [Xeric tropical; Terrestrial, Epipetric] 23A

Selaginella kraussiana
Spreading Clubmoss. Africa. This is a fern ally and is the most commonly grown Selaginella in the world. It is prized for its hardiness and adaptability and for its beautiful green mat of foliage.. It likes lots of shade and water. It van be grown as a ground cover in deep shade and will make a useful houseplant. [Temperate to Tropical; Terrestrial] 23A

Selaginella martinsii
(No common name) Mexico, Central America. An attractive species with spreading green leaves and a clumping form of growth. It is widely grown in cultivation as ground cover or in a wide pot. It needs shady moist conditions and a climate that edges on the tropical. Several special forms are grown. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 23A

Selliquea feei
(no common name) India and Indonesia. This is a harsh-textured but attractive fern with glossy, bright green simple fronds. This fern is excellent for pots or baskets and very easy to grow. Needs a coarse mixture, shade, humidity, and air movement. Grows well here. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 7A

Stenochlaena tenuifolia
Vine Fern. Asia. A climbing fern that roots in the ground and climbs to the tops of tall trees, it needs support to continue to grow. It likes a lot of light and will grow in Southern California. Can be invasive. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 7B
T

Tectaria gemmifera

(No Common Name.) Africa, Malagasy, Seychelles. This is a large fern with fronds that grow to a length of 8 or 9 feet. It is named for many bulbils, or gemma, which grow on the upper surface of the fronds. It grows easily here with plenty of water and humidity and will grow in very deep shade. [Temperate to Semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 11D

Tectaria trifidia
(No common name) Philippines. This is a plant of the hot, wet forests. It grows to about 16 in tall with pinnate fronds. The basal pinnules have a large wing-like lobes. It requires a terrarium or greenhouse to live in Southern California. [Tropical; Terrestrial] 4A

Thelypteris decursive-pinnata
(Winged or Japanese Beech Fern) Asia. Also known as Phegopteris decursive-pinnata. Grows naturally in acid moist soil in full shade. It is a deciduous clumping fern with pale green thinly-textured fronds. It is a common forest fern not easy to grow in Southern California gardens. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 11B

Thelypteris palustris
Marsh Fern. Europe, North America. This fern grows in wet areas and has light green fronds spaced out on a long creeping rhizome. It cannot tolerate lime. T. palustris v. pubescens is the American version. Found in swampy areas, ditches, etc., it can be cultivated in moist garden soil, but is weedy in habit. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 7B

Thelypteris parasitica
(No common name) Pantropical, mostly S.E. Asia. Also known as Christella parasitica. Likes a sunny location with lots of water. Grows naturally along stream beds and open bogs. Runs by long underground rhizomes. Seems happy here with plenty of light and water. [Tropical to semi-tropical; terrestrial] 8B

Todea barbara
Austral King Fern. New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. This is considered to be one of the most primitive of ferns. In the wild it can grow to be a very large specimen with multiple heads of erect, bright green fronds. It is considered easy to grow in a pot or in the garden, though it seldom lasts very long in this area. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 16C

Trichomanes minutus
(No common name). India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Polynesia, Australia. Also knows as Gonocormus minutus. This tiny fern with its 2" or 3 " fronds forms mats on rocks or, occasionally on trees. Its little palmate fronds grow plantlets on the upper side resulting in tiers of fronds from a single stipe. It likes it dark and moist but grows easily in pots. It needs constant high humidity so it will be a greenhouse or terrarium plant here. [Tropical to semi-tropical; Epipetric, Epiphytic] 2A

V

Vittaria lineata

Shoestring Fern. Florida, Central and South America. This is an epiphytic fern that grows on the bases of Sabal palmetto in Florida. It is a clumping fern with long drooping strap fronds. Likes bright light. Not commonly grown here, presumably because of humidity requirements. [ Tropical to semi-tropical; Epiphytic] 8A
W

Woodsia scopulina

Mountain Cliff Fern. North America. This is a small compact fern that grows to just over a foot in height mostly of rocky slopes and cliffs at high altitudes. There appear to be several sub-species, two of which live in the Pacific Northwest and in the Rocky Mountains and one in the Appalachian mountains. [Temperate; Terrestrial] 2C

Woodwardia fimbriata
Giant Chain Fern. U.S., Canada, Mexico. This fern grows in moist woods, often near streams where it can attain heights of up to six feet. Fronds are held upright in clusters. Can be readily grown in garden or pots if it is kept moist. Range is southern British Columbia to Baja California. The name "Chain Fern" comes from the chain-like appearance of the sori along the back side of the pinnule midrib. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 17C

Woodwardia orientalis
Oriental Chain Fern. Japan, China, Northern India. This large fern with fronds to six feet in length usually grows in a low arch or fairly flat to the ground. An attractive feature is the dozens of plantlets that appear on the big fronds. These are easily planted to start new ferns. This fern likes a moist situation with quite a bit of sun. [Temperate to semi-tropical, Terrestrial] 17B

Woodwardia radicans
European Chain Fern. Europe, Asia. This fern has now escaped in some areas in the U.S. It has long fronds that arch and frequently form buds and plantlets where the tip of the frond touches the soil. Easy to grow in the garden but needs plenty of room. [Temperate to semi-tropical; Terrestrial] 17B

The following is a partial list of the references used to gather information about the ferns in this catalog.

* Brownsey, P. & Smith-Dodsworth, J. New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants
* Burroughs, John E. South African Ferns and Fern Allies
* Chin, Wee Yeow Ferns of the Tropics
* Duncan, Betty & Isaac, Golda Ferns and Allied Plants of Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia
* Foster, F. Gordon Ferns to Know and Grow
* Garrett, Michael The Ferns of Tasmania
* Goudey, Christopher J. A Handbook of Ferns for Australia and New Zealand
* Grillos, Steve J. Ferns and Fern Allies of California
* Hennipman, E. & Roos, M.C. A Monograph of the Fern Genus Platycerium
* Hoshizaki, Barbara Joe Fern Growers Manual
* Hoshizaki, Barbara Joe The Fern Genus Davallia in Cultivation
* Hoshizaki, Barbara Joe The Genus Pyrrosia in Cultivation
* Hoshizaki, Barbara Joe The Genus Polypodium in Cultivation
* Hoshizaki, B.J. & Wilson, Kenneth A. The Cultivated Species of the Fern Genus Dryopteris in the United States
* Hovenkamp, P.H. A Monograph of the Fern Genus Pyrrosia
* Jones, David L.; Encyclopaedia of Ferns
* Lellinger, David B.; A Field Manual of the Ferns and Allied Plants of the United States and Canada
* Mickel, J.T. How to Know the Ferns and Fern Allies
* Mickel, J.T. & Beitel, J. M. Pteridophyte Flora of Oaxaca, Mexico
* Piggott, A.G. Ferns of Malaysia in Colour
* Raulerson, Lynn & Rinehart, Agnes Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands
* Roux, J.P. Cape Peninsula Ferns
* So, M.L. Hong Kong Ferns
* P> So, M.L. Common Ferns of the Philippines
* Tryon, R.M. & A.F. Tryon Ferns and Allied Plants with Special Reference to Tropical America
* Vail, Roy A Platycerium Hobbyist's Handbook
* Vallier, Kathy; Ferns of Hawaii
* Witham, Helen Ferns of San Diego County
* --------- Flora of North America. Vol 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms
* --------- Flora of Australia. Vol. 48. Ferns, Gymnosperms and Allied Groups
* --------- Fern Society of Victoria Newsletter
* --------- Los Angeles International Fern Society Journal
* --------- Los Angeles International Fern Society - Fern Lessons